From 1827 to 1844 a series of malaria and smallpox epidemics in Central California contributed to the end of resistance in Bay Miwok territory. Remnants of the tribes went to work on local ranches or fled to the Central Valley. Gold was discovered (1848), California became a state (1850) and tens of thousands of new Californians transformed the state.
Contact with the Spanish and Americans eventually decimated the Indian population and culture, leaving the Bay Miwok resistance as only a memory.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of California, Vol. I, Santa Barbara: Wallace Hebberd, 1963.
Bean, Lowell, Ed., Indians of California, San Francisco: California Historical Society, Fall 1992. Lowell Bean, “Indians of California: Diverse and Complex People”, p. 302ff.
Fredrickson, David A., et. al., Native American History Studies for the Los Vaqueros Project: A Synthesis, Rohnert Park, CA: Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University Academic Foundation, Inc., March, 1997.
Heizer Robert F., Ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 8, California, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. Edward D. Castillo, “The Impact of Euro-American Exploration and Settlement”, pp. 99-127.
Hoover, Mildred Brooke et. al., Historic Spots in California, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966.
Hurtado, Albert L., Indian Survival on the California Frontier, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1988.
Jackson, Robert H. and Edward Castillo, Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization, Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1996.
Milliken, Randall, A Time of Little Choice The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769-1810, Meno Park: Ballena Books, 1995. (Pedro Amador quote, p. 156)
------------, Cultural Resource Evaluation of Keller Ranch, Clayton, California, Part II: “An Ethnographic Study of the Clayton Area, Contra Costa County, California.” San Francisco: Holman & Associates, May 1982.
Munro-Fraser, J.P., History of Contra Costa County California (San Francisco: W. A. Slocum & Co.), 1882, pp. 254 – 337.
Ortiz, Beverly R., Mount Diablo Sacred Birthplace of the World, An Indian History Convoluted, draft manuscript, 1992.
Ziesing, Grace H., From Rancho to Reservoir: History and Archaeology of the Los Vaqueros Watershed, California, Rohnert Park, CA: Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University Academic Foundation, Inc., 1997.
From Bay Miwok Readings, 2003